name the advantage and disadvantage to the manner in which bryophytes reproduce on land

In hornworts and thallose liverworts the gametophyte is a flattish sheet A germinating spore produces a new gametophyte. The breakage may be accidental, such as animal trampling or erosion leading to fragmentation of an existing bryophyte colony. They lack vascular tissue and strong supportive tissues and are found growing close to the ground. Traditionally, all living land plants without vascular tissues were classified in a single taxonomic group, often a division (or phylum). In vegetative reproduction, there is no such mixing and each new plant is derived from just one parent plant. 1 P). Mature sporophytes remain attached to the gametophyte. In contrast, swimming gametes are a real disadvantage on land Eventually, plants evolved gametes (pollen grain sperm cells) that are transported by wind or other organisms IV. Water is another dispersal agent and one group of mosses even attracts insects to carry away the spores. In mosses and leafy liverworts the stems and leaves make up the gametophyte. Vegetative Reproduction in Bryophytes: ... From this arise the leafy gametophores or lateral buds in the same manner as in primary protonema e.g., Funaria, Sphagnum (Fig. As mentioned above they have cuticles, gametangia and embryonic development which are all features of more advanced, land plants. In some cases such propagules are produced in specialised structures, such as the shallow, circular cups of Many bryophytes produce gemmae, but most don't do so in specialised structures. Bryophytes have neither pollen nor flowers and rely on water to carry the male gametes (the sperm) to the female gametes (the eggs). Because they have no vascular system, and require high moisture, mosses can’t physically grow very tall. By Bulbils: These are small resting buds develop on rhizoids. In the process of spore production in the capsule haploid spores are produced by the diploid sporophyte. 1 P). They consist of a stalk called a seta and a single sporangium or capsule. Many bryophyte spores are very small and easily wind-dispersed, potentially over fairly long distances. The spore capsules are produced after the sperm have fertilized the eggs. The production of spores or vegetative propagules is a critical step on the way to producing new plants. However, many bryophytes have zones of weakness which promote the breakage of parts of the gametophyte, such as whole branches or perhaps just branch tips or even just parts of leaves. Hence the spores are part of the sexual reproductive cycle.The gametes are produced on what’s called the gametophyte. The connecting part in a forking gametophyte may die, leading to the loss of a connection between two forks. On the other hand, they still require water for reproduction and lack vascular tissue.

The sporophyte that develops from a fertilized egg has two sets of chromosomes in each cell and so is also diploid. This happens by the process of meiosis, the same process by which animals (including humans) produce eggs and sperm, and by which the flowering plants produce eggs and pollen. A piece that breaks off a gametophyte and then lands in a suitable habitat will grow into a new gametophyte. When a sperm meets and fertilizes an egg two sets of chromosomes (an equal number from each parent) are combined and the fertilized egg (or zygote) is a diploid entity. They have adapted themselves to terrestrial habitat but are still dependent on water to complete their life cycle. But those spores and propagules need to be dispersed. Many home gardeners are familiar with vegetative reproduction and practise it without necessarily knowing it by that name. The term "Bryophyta" was first suggested by Braun (1964).Bryophytes exist in a wide variety of habitats. In each cell of the gametophyte that develops from a spore there is just a single set of chromosomes so gametophytes are also haploid. Similarly, many gardeners are familiar with the dividing of plants. An alternative phylogeny, based on amino acids rather than genes, shows bryophytes as a monophyletic group:If this phylogeny proves correct, then the complex sporophyte of living vascular plants might have evolved independently of the simpler unbranched sporophyte present in bryophytes.There have probably been several different terrestrialization events, in which originally aquatic organisms colonized the land, just within the lineage of the Green algae, bryophytes and vascular plants all have chlorophyll a and b, and the chloroplast structures are similar.Bryophytes depend on water for reproduction and survival.
10. Bryophytes are a critical link between aquatic and land plants and they contain a number of adaptations that are characteristic of both land and aquatic plants. Both mosses and hornworts have a Liverworts, mosses and hornworts spend most of their lives as gametophytes. They evolved 430 mya and were among the first plants to colonize the land. 11. Additionally, there's a very brief account of dispersal methods near the end of this page but, again, with a link to a much longer account. Many bryophytes produce tiny, easily dispersed propagules that will germinate to produce new gametophytes.

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